Nephrology – Neurology


Nephrology is the branch of internal medicine that focuses on care of the kidneys, and diagnosis and treatment of kidney disease and disorders. Many kidney problems are systemic, and require medical evaluation and intervention not only by nephrologists, but by specialists in other fields, such as immunology or rheumatology.

The human body has two kidneys, which are located at the back of the abdomen; each is approximately the size of the human fist. The kidneys act as filters by removing waste from the blood, and producing urine, a fluid that contains the waste. As urine is collected, it passes into the bladder through tubes called “ureters.” When the bladder is full, urine passes through the urethra, and out of the body.

Disorders of the Kidney

There are many disorders, including the following, that affect the kidneys:

  • Congenital disorders (such as polycystic kidney disease)
  • Infectious diseases (such as pyelonephritis)
  • Inflammatory disorders (such as glomerulonephritis, interstitial nephritis)
  • Abnormalities (such as kidney stones, renal cysts, nephrogenic diabetes insipidus)
  • Kidney cancer
  • Diabetic or hypertensive nephropathy
  • Imbalance of electrolytes, or acids and bases
  • Acute or chronic kidney failure

The most common type of kidney cancer in adults is renal-cell carcinoma; it usually affects men between 50 and 70 years old.

Treatment of Kidney Disorders

Nephrologists treat kidney disorders, depending on their type and severity, in a variety of ways. Treatments for kidney disease include the following:

  • Antibiotics
  • Nephrostomy (catheter inserted directly into kidney to drain urine)
  • Lithotripsy (shock waves used to shatter kidney stones)
  • Nephrectomy (cancerous/severely damaged kidney is surgically removed)
  • Hemodialysis (dialysis machine filters blood when kidneys fail)
  • Peritoneal dialysis (fluid is siphoned into abdomen, and then drained, to filter blood)

A kidney transplant is necessary when kidneys are unable to function. Kidney-transplant donors may or may not be related to the transplant recipient.


We at Caduceus Medical Group combines state-of-the-art technology with sensitivity to patient needs to provide you with the best possible spinal care.

We are dedicated to providing treatment and support to patients who:

  • Have sustained spinal cord injuries to the head, neck or back;
  • Suffer chronic pain or functional problems associated with conditions such as fibromyalgia, multiple sclerosis, herniated discs or arthritis; and
  • Are experiencing health problems whose cause may lie in the spine, including migraine headaches, fatigue, bed-wetting, and neck, shoulder or lower back pain.

We also work with at-risk patients to prevent such conditions.

Our office features state-of-the-art diagnostic imaging equipment to aid in precise diagnosis and treatment. Along with the expert attention we give to the problem itself, we consider pain relief and management a critical part of care.

We treat patients of all ages, from newborns to seniors and everyone in between. Whatever spinal condition has affected you or your loved one, we are here to help.


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